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Kefalovryso and Watermills

The Kefalovryso (fountain) of Kritou Terra was built in 1908 and it was actually the fourth biggest “kefalovryso” of Cyprus. In particular, the ‘kefalovryso’ was classified fourth behind the ones of the villages Kythrea, Lapithos and Karavas, whereas it was classified third as far as the volume of water was concerned. 

What is noteworthy is the fact that the water of the “kefalovryso” could irrigate the large gardens of the village at the time. Unfortunately, however, as Arkadiou notes, the water of the “kefalovryso” was lost once the new road and bridge were constructed in 1967. The possible causes for the reduction of the water amount, according to Arkadiou, were the multiple explosions caused by dynamites which had been set for the construction of the road, whereas at the same time, the construction of the new bridge eliminated some of the springs. Therefore, the level of the water decreased to such a degree that the present residents are forced to pump water, as Aristeidou correctly observes. At this point we need to mention that some researchers claim that the flow of water seized due to the earthquakes. This claim is confuted by Arkadiou by noting that the flow of water continued normally up until 1970. This claim is also supported by the fact that 40 years after the flow of water decreased, this resumed during the rainy months of 2009 and continues up to the present when an abundant amount of water flows from all six exit pipes of the “kefalovryso”, something which proves that the water has changed course due to the fact that its route was blocked by the construction of the road.  
Additionally, it must be noted that the “Kefalovryso” of Kritou Terra is located on an altitude of 450 metres and that the average flow of water during the period of 1966-1973 was approximately 1.120 cubic metres of water. 

Kritou Terra was also distinguished for the number of watermills in the village which amounted to approximately fifteen, this way classifying the village as second in watermills after the village of Kythrea. These water-operated mills would grind wheat and barley, whereas they used to serve both the residents of the village and the ones of the neighbouring villages. Nowadays, the existence of the watermills is indicated only by their ruins, which one can encounter north of the “Kefalovryso” and north of the rivers Kremmiotis and Mylari. 

Savvas Arkadiou
Dr Christou G. Aristeidou  


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